Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine (as indicated in the treatment of cold sores) has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. J. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in 2004 he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone.  A possible cause of incorrect urine test results is the presence of metabolites from other AAS, though modern urinalysis can usually determine the exact AAS used by analyzing the ratio of the two remaining nandrolone metabolites. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport . On October 5, 2007, three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000. 
In a study of 1,685 patients treated with CPA, elevated liver enzymes were seen in 10% of patients at a dosage of 50 mg/day and in 20% of patients at a dosage of greater than 100 mg/day.  A study of 2,506 patients given 18–136 mg/day for less than 48 months per patient reported a rate of %.   In a trial of 89 prostate cancer patients who received high-dose CPA for 4 years, there were elevated liver enzymes in % of the patients.  Yet another study of 105 patients found a hepatotoxicity rate of %, with serious hepatic injury occurring in %.  In 2002, it was reported that there were 18 case reports of CPA-associated hepatitis in the medical literature, with 6 of the cases resulting in death.  In addition, a review article cited a report of 96 instances of hepatotoxicity that were attributed to CPA, and 33 of these instances resulted in death.  Moreover, a 2014 review found that 15 cases specifically of CPA-induced fulminant (sudden-onset and severe) liver failure had been reported to date, with only one of these cases not resulting in death.  As such, the prognosis of CPA-induced liver failure is death.