The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (1961)
This map contrasts the federal structure of the Federal Republic of Germany with the centralized structure of the German Democratic Republic. The Federal Republic was made up of ten federal states [ Bundesländer ]: the territorial states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, and Schleswig-Holstein, as well as the city-states of Hamburg and Bremen. In 1952, the former states [ Länder ] of the GDR were replaced by fourteen districts [ Bezirke ] under the control of the central government in Berlin (East). According to Allied stipulations, Berlin constituted a special zone. Nonetheless, the respective governments in East and West followed a de facto policy of incorporating the sections of Berlin that belonged to them into their own administrative structures – even though this could be challenged by the opposite side on a de jure basis. West Berlin was frequently viewed as an eleventh federal state. On account of its special status, however, it could only exercise a limited right to representation in Bonn’s upper and lower houses of parliament (the Bundesrat and Bundestag , respectively). The East German government, on the other hand, treated East Berlin as a fifteenth district of the GDR. Please click on print version (below) for a larger version with enhanced resolution. print version return to map list next map
For another 3 miles or so was the Restricted Zone where the inhabitants of entire villages were progressively evicted from their homes and the buildings razed to the ground, so potential escapees would have no place to hide or shelter themselves. If a village was located near the border, the citizens were not allowed to repair normal wear-and-tear on their buildings and infrastructure, until they finally fell into uninhabitable ruin, then the rubble was removed. Geographic Area & Estimated Building Costs So that was the DDR border area. It consumed 2,770 square miles, over 6% of the DDR’s total land area. Within this area, economic activity was severely curtailed or ceased entirely. To this day, no one knows precisely how much it cost to build and maintain the DDR border fortifications. The building cost of just one of the 30′ watchtowers was about 65,000 Ostmarks (roughly $16,250 in 1970s dollars) each and the expanded metal fences cost over 244,250 Ostmarks (roughly $61,000 in 1970s dollars) per mile.