Nanomedicine is simply the application of nanotechnologies in a healthcare setting and the majority of benefits that have already been seen involve the use of nanoparticles to improve the behaviour of drug substances. Today, nanomedicines are used globally to improve the treatments and lives of patients suffering from a range of disorders including ovarian and breast cancer, kidney disease, fungal infections, elevated cholesterol, menopausal symptoms, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, asthma and emphysema. The nanomedicines that are currently available are overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by normal medical approaches in delivering the benefit from the drug molecules used. In some cases the drugs have very little solubility in water and the human body struggles to absorb enough to treat the condition. In other cases, the drug molecule is absorbed well but the body removes the drug before it has had long enough to provide a benefit. Drugs may lead to side-effects due to poor delivery at the actual site of disease. For example, drugs that are targeting cancers must avoid healthy tissues and organs or damage can be caused. Nanomedicines therefore can play an important role in ensuring enough of the drug enters the body, that drug that does enter stays in the body for long periods and is targeted specifically to the areas that need treatment.
Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).
Then we’re left with PCT Clomid use. Standard PCT Clomid doses will normally start at 100-150mg per day for 1-2 weeks. From here the dose will drop to 50-100mg per day for 1-2 weeks and finish with 1-2 weeks at 50mg per day. Total Clomid therapy should last 4-6 weeks, so dosing should be based and considered on that total schedule. Most will also be far more successful in their PCT recovery by including Nolvadex and HCG. Timing is also important when planning your Clomid PCT use, and this timing factor will vary depending on the inclusion of HCG: