Exemestane steroidal aromatase inhibitor

After a median duration of therapy of about 30 months and a median follow-up of about 119 months, results showed that sequential treatment with exemestane after 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy was associated with a clinically and statistically significant improvement in DFS compared with continuation of tamoxifen therapy. Analysis showed that over the observed study period exemestane reduced the risk of breast cancer recurrence by 14% compared with tamoxifen (hazard ratio , p = ). The beneficial effect of exemestane over tamoxifen with respect to DFS was apparent regardless of nodal status or prior chemotherapy.

Additional adverse reactions of any cause observed in the overall clinical trials program (N = 1058) in 5% or greater of patients treated with exemestane 25 mg once daily but not in the comparative study included pain at tumor sites (8%), asthenia (6%), and fever (5%). Adverse reactions of any cause reported in 2% to 5% of all patients treated with exemestane 25 mg in the overall clinical trials program but not in the comparative study included chest pain, hypoesthesia, confusion, dyspepsia , arthralgia, back pain, skeletal pain, infection, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis , rhinitis , and alopecia.

Metabolism: Exemestane is extensively metabolized, with levels of the unchanged drug in plasma accounting for less than 10% of the total radioactivity. The initial steps in the metabolism of exemestane are oxidation of the methylene group in position 6 and reduction of the 17-keto group with subsequent formation of many secondary metabolites. Each metabolite accounts only for a limited amount of drug-related material. The metabolites are inactive or inhibit aromatase with decreased potency compared with the parent drug. One metabolite may have androgenic activity [see Clinical Pharmacology ( ) ] . Studies using human liver preparations indicate that cytochrome P 450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) is the principal isoenzyme involved in the oxidation of exemestane. Exemestane is metabolized also by aldoketoreductases.

Anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are members of the third generation of aromatase inhibitors that has now replaced aminoglutethimide (Cytadren), the progestins, and tamoxifen (Nolvadex) as the hormonal therapy of choice in estrogen-receptor-positive, postmenopausal, metastatic breast cancer. This article will review the role of aromatase in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and the results of recent studies that have established the role of its inhibitors in estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. We will also briefly outline the rationale and design of ongoing studies. [ONCOLOGY 15(8):965-979, 2001]

Exemestane steroidal aromatase inhibitor

exemestane steroidal aromatase inhibitor

Anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are members of the third generation of aromatase inhibitors that has now replaced aminoglutethimide (Cytadren), the progestins, and tamoxifen (Nolvadex) as the hormonal therapy of choice in estrogen-receptor-positive, postmenopausal, metastatic breast cancer. This article will review the role of aromatase in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and the results of recent studies that have established the role of its inhibitors in estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. We will also briefly outline the rationale and design of ongoing studies. [ONCOLOGY 15(8):965-979, 2001]

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