Some of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive inhibitors of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these competitive inhibitors. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant viruses?
A) in or near the active site
B) at an allosteric site
C) at a cofactor binding site
D) in regions of the protein that determine packaging into the virus capsid
E) such mutations could occur anywhere with equal probability
In chemical thermodynamics , an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction ) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed. In layman's terms, the total amount of energy is a loss (it takes more energy to start the reaction than what you get out of it) so the total energy is a negative net result. For an overall gain in the net result see exergonic reaction . Another way to phrase this is that energy is absorbed from the surroundings into the workable system.
Typically, any exercise that is aerobic is a catabolic process. These include swimming, jogging and cycling, and other exercises that induce a conversion from using either glucose or glycogen as an energy source, to burning fat to meet the increased energy requirement 18 . Time is crucial in inciting catabolism, as it must burn through glucose/glycogen reserves first 19 . While both are key to a reduction in body fat mass, anabolism and catabolism are contrasting metabolic processes that result in either an increase or decrease in overall body weight. A combination catabolic and anabolic exercises allow the body to reach and maintain ideal body weight.